characterized by the infliction of physical injury as a result
of punching, beating, kicking, biting, burning, shaking or otherwise
harming a child. The parent or caretaker may not have intended
to hurt the child; rather, the injury may have resulted from
over-discipline or physical punishment.
may involve the failure to provide a loving environment or adequate
care and supervision for the child. It may also involve the
care-giver ignoring or rejecting the child. Emotional abuse
includes verbal abuse, in which the care-giver belittles, yells
at or criticizes the child constantly, and threatens the child.
is any form of sexual activity between an adult and child where
the adult gains sexual gratification from the activity. (It
is still considered sexual abuse even if the child also receives
sexual pleasure from the activity). This may involve fondling
and may or may not involve penile penetration.
involves endangering a childs physical, social or psychological
welfare. It includes action perpetrated by an institution, or
a staff member at the institution, or by the social welfare
system against a child or a group of children. Institutions
include schools, courts, childrens homes, or other child
care institutions, foster homes, health, welfare, or other social
service delivery systems.
neglect is characterized by failure to provide for the childs
basic needs. Neglect can be physical,
is the denial of a childs right to have his or her physical
needs met and may involve the failure to provide food, clothing
or shelter. Physical neglect may also involve wilful neglect
or blatant rejection, as in the case of abandonment. Abandonment
can be described as the most extreme form of neglect.
is the wilful denial of a childs right to receive medical
attention when needed. It may involve refusal by a care-giver
to take a child for immunization or medical attention, for example
when the care-giver is aware of the need for such medical attention
and when such medical attention is available.
includes such actions as marked inattention to the childs
needs for affection; refusal of or failure to provide needed
psychological care; spouse abuse in the childs presence;
and permission of drug or alcohol use by the child.
the denial of a childs right to be exposed to a consistent